Wednesday, February 15, 2017

National Economic Outlook - February 2017

Written By:
Ingo Winzer, President

Local Market Monitor

Home prices are mainly determined by supply and demand, and a lot of the demand is tied to the economy. When the economy adds jobs, demand grows.

Our forecast of home prices in local markets estimates local economic growth over the next three years. Since the end of the recession, in about 2010, our forecast has assumed that all local economies will get better and better.

We're now changing that assumption. The national economy hit a peak in 2015 and has since been growing at a steadily slower rate. Our assumption for the next three years is that growth in all local markets, with some exceptions, will no longer get better and better but will just continue at the current rate.

The effect on our home price forecasts isn't very big. Nationally, the forecast for the next three years only drops from 17 percent to 14 percent, still a healthy increase. But the larger concern is the possibility that the economy is on a slide to slower and slower growth - which would affect demand more sharply.

Jobs in January were up 1.5 percent from last year; flat in manufacturing, up 1.4 percent in retail trade, up 2.3 percent in finance, 2.7 percent in business services, 2.4 percent in healthcare, 2 percent at restaurants, and up a half percent in government.

Jobs in truck transport were up 0.6 percent - not good; and temp jobs were up 3.1 - much better than in previous months.

Monday, January 2, 2017

National Economic Outlook - January 2017

Written By:
Ingo Winzer, President

Local Market Monitor

Three things to keep in mind for 2017: the economy will grow at a slower rate, home prices will continue to rise, but more people will want to rent. This isn't much different from 2016 but the risk of investing will be higher in some local markets.


The Economy

The Federal Reserve believes the economy is "strong" and will do even better next year. The Local Market Monitor thinks this is pie-in-the-sky optimistic.
 
The US economy moves in tidal waves that ebb and flow for years at a time. This is especially true for jobs. After the 2008 recession, job creation built back to a peak of 2.3 percent in early 2015 and since then it's receded to a 1.6 percent annual rate. Maybe another wave of growth will follow in 2017, but I doubt it. Some important stats say further slowing is more likely.

Two special indicators - new jobs in trucking and in new jobs in temporary services - which both soared after the recession, have now dropped to their lowest level since then. Trucking jobs move goods to stores, and temps are the last ones hired before businesses stop hiring altogether. Lows in these areas are tough to square with a "strong" economy.

Job statistics tell us what the economy is likely to do, but they don't tell us why. To better understand what will happen with jobs - and therefore with real estate - we need to look at the longer-term situation of American consumers, who drive the economy but can only spend money when they make money. Or when they borrow it.

Before the last recession, consumers had borrowed - and spent - vast amounts of money against the value of their homes. When they could borrow no more, spending stopped and the recession started.

The next slowdown will probably happen when consumers are up their eyeballs in the vast amount of debt they have taken on to pay for college.

Over the last ten years, student debt increased by a trillion (yes, trillion) dollars. When a business borrows, it may invest in something that will grow the economy; but when a student borrows to pay for something that has no more value than a high school diploma once did, it's not an investment that will grow the economy - it's just a transfer payment to their college, and a debt that keeps them from spending money on other things.

The unfortunate situation we seem to be in is that our economy can only grow modestly unless consumers borrow to spend - first it was homeowners, now it's young adults. What will happen when all consumers have borrowed all they can?


Home Prices

Nationally, home prices bottomed out in 2012 and are up about 5 percent a year since then. But the local differences are stark. In the last three years, prices rose 30 percent in Southern California, yet just 5 percent in Alabama and Connecticut. Many local markets are still under-priced 25 percent or more. Not surprisingly, job and population growth account for much of the difference.

It's easy to list growing markets where prices will continue to rise, but are the under-priced markets an investment opportunity? For that matter, what's the best way to invest in markets that are already over-priced? The answer may lie in the rental question.


Buying Versus Renting

Buying, fixing up and then renting out single-family homes remains an attractive proposition. Right after the recession, bargain home prices were a big draw for such an investment, promising quick returns. But even with higher prices, the fundamental economics of renting will be favorable for years.

In 2005, 37 million American households were in rentals. In 2016 it was 44 million. Builders, however, have not kept pace - in the last five years just 2 million new rentals built although 4 million were needed. And there are good reasons to think this imbalance will continue.

The income of the average worker increased just 10 percent in the last five years - no better than inflation. More importantly, the income of the lower half of workers increased only 8 percent. Fewer people have the income to buy a home and more of them are already saddled with debt.


The Take-Away


Slower job creation in 2017 - incomes for many people don't match inflation - the debt of consumers goes even higher - more people need to rent - but builders aren't building enough rentals. 

Thursday, November 10, 2016

National Economic Outlook - November 2016

Written By:
Ingo Winzer, President

Local Market Monitor

The Trump administration will probably launch a local infra-structure construction program to boost local incomes. The money to pay for this program will have to come from increasing the deficit, which will mean higher interest rates.

The combination will increase demand for homes but also the cost of buying them, and will accelerate the trend towards more renting.

Throughout most of the Rust Belt, where Donald Trump won strong support, prices for homes remain very low - partly because the local economic situation has for years been very poor. If government money is routed towards these most visible areas of economic stagnation, local home values will rise for years, as will demand for single-family rentals.

Jobs in October were up 1.6 percent from last year, the slowest rate of growth in three years. Jobs were down 1.2 percent in manufacturing, but up 1.5 percent in retail, 2.1 percent in finance, 2.7 percent in business services, and 2.6 percent in healthcare. Government jobs were up almost 1 percent, mainly at the local level.

Jobs in truck transport were up just 0.4 percent, a very negative development, and temp jobs were up 1.8 percent, also an indication of slower growth.

Overall, the economy has been growing at a slower pace during the past year, with the prospect of even lower growth in 2017 and 2018. A government construction program, even if it can't kick in for a while, will come at just the right time to reboot the economy.

Wednesday, September 21, 2016

National Economic Outlook - September 2016

Written By:
Ingo Winzer, President

Local Market Monitor

What will it mean for real estate when the US economy slows down? That's not an academic question - we're seeing hints of slower growth already. The last recession was coupled with a real estate disaster, but my guess is that a slowdown this time will actually have no dramatic effects.

That's partly because mortgages and home building haven't provided much of a boost to the economy during this cycle, despite interest rates close to zero; so we don't have the artificial risk structures that came crashing down the last time. What we're most likely to see in a lower-growth environment is more of the same from the last few years: home prices still rising in some markets because there hasn't been enough new construction; prices stagnating in smaller industrial markets because people aren't moving there; and a continuing shift towards renting almost everywhere.

As our economy relies more on service jobs - and with computers doing what used to be management - the income gap increases and the attractiveness of home ownership decreases. A slower economy will mainly hasten those changes.

Jobs in August were up 1.7 percent from last year - part of the slowing trend. Jobs were up just 3 percent in construction (for construction, 3 percent is close to nothing), down slightly in manufacturing, up 1.8 percent in retail, 2.7 percent in business services, 3 percent in healthcare, and 2.5 percent at restaurants. Our leading indicator of growth - temp help services - was up 1 percent, we can worry when it goes below zero.

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

National Economic Outlook - August 2016

Written By:
Ingo Winzer, President

Local Market Monitor

Despite the best efforts of government officials to pull the right levers, the US economy still runs in cycles. In fact, it seems prone to bigger swings despite more regulation of the details of business - a sort of forest-and-trees situation.

While it's too soon to panic, one coal mine canary has signaled that the cycle is again turning. Over the last few months, the number of new temp jobs has slowed sharply. This used to be mainly secretaries but now includes anything from computer programmers to machine operators. There are more than 3 million of them and they are the tide in our outsource economy, easily ebbing and flowing with business needs - and foretelling the last three recessions. Last year they increased 4 percent, this year just 1 percent. We'll keep an eye on this.

Jobs in July were up 1.7 percent over last year, confirming the slower growth we've seen the last few months. Jobs were flat in manufacturing and government, up 2 percent in retail trade, 2.6 percent in business services, 2.6 percent at restaurants, and 3 percent in healthcare. Unemployment remains at 4.9 percent.

Finally reacting to higher home prices and rents, the construction sector added 200,000 jobs in the past year. A slower economy would crimp that expansion, which would put current property holders in a strong position for years.

Monday, June 13, 2016

National Economic Outlook - June 2016

Written By:
Ingo Winzer, President

Local Market Monitor

Over the last ten years the percent of households that own a home fell from 69 percent to 63 percent. Not surprisingly, the biggest drop was felt by younger adults. Homeownership in the crucial 35 to 45 age range dropped 6 percent in just the last 5 years. Crucial, because families in this age range who rent, once settled down with children, are less likely to buy a home in the near future.

At the other end of the age spectrum, homeownership for those over 65 didn't drop at all until just this past year, when it edged lower. This could be the start of baby boomers selling their northern homes and moving south. If so, the combination of older and younger Americans opting out of owning will affect housing markets for the next decade.

The economy is growing at a slower pace. Jobs in May were up 1.7 percent from last year, compared to 2.0 percent in previous months. If we see similar figures through the summer, a significant change will be underway.

Part of the slower growth was a drop of half a percent in manufacturing jobs, largely in metals and machinery - probably associated with energy extraction equipment. Retail jobs were up 2 percent, restaurant jobs up 3 percent, so consumers continue to spend freely. Healthcare jobs were up 3 percent, business service jobs were up 2.7 percent - a significant slowing from previous months.

A breakdown of the financial sector shows that the long loss of jobs at commercial banks is over. Meanwhile, more jobs are now at investment funds and in non-bank lending. Does this mean we have less risk in the financial system or just that less of the risk is regulated?

Unemployment in May was 4.7 percent.

Thursday, April 14, 2016

National Economic Outlook- April 2016

Written By:
Ingo Winzer, President

Local Market Monitor

From 1990 to 2000, manufacturing production in the US increased 50 percent. From 2005 to 2015 it was flat. There was a recession, which accounts for some of the stagnation, but growth in the next 10 years will probably be very mild - which means that it won't create new jobs. After a short run in 2014, job growth in manufacturing in the past year was zero.

Even though manufacturing production is now 70 percent higher than in 1990, the number of jobs in the industry is now 5 million lower - a decrease of 30 percent.

These are important facts for real estate because they make clear that future homeowners will have jobs in the service industries, where employment is less secure and pay - except at management levels - is often lower.

Total jobs in March were up 2 percent from last year. Jobs were up 5 percent in construction - good but still not indicating a rebound in demand; up 2.5 percent in retail trade; up 3.1 percent in business services; up 3.4 percent in healthcare; up 3.4 percent at restaurants; and up 100,000 in government - 0.5 percent - all at the local level.

Unemployment was up slightly to 5 percent.